Bread Recipes

Shortcuts to: Yeasted BreadsSourdough Breads

Results to look for in bread baking:

1. Elasticity of dough

1. Elasticity of dough

2. Good rise

2. Good rise

3. Even colour

3. Even colour

4. Consistent crumb

4. Consistent crumb

5. Crunchy Crust

5. Crunchy Crust

6. Good flavour

6. Good flavour

wheatsheaf

Yeasted Breads

Cottage Loaf

Bread_Cottage Loaf

Variants of this loaf include the small top cottage loaf, the cottage loaf, and the brick - depending on how large the 'top' of the loaf is. Anecdotally, the strange two-tiered shape of this loaf of bread was believed to be a space-saving invention. In the days before ovens in the home, villagers may have taken their loaves to the local bakehouse where they were placed on top of each other - making them look like a dwelling. And so the name ‘cottage’ loaf was born.

Mrs Beeton in her eponymously named cookery book, first published in 1861, shows a drawing of a cottage loaf on a bread platter.

Cottage loaf 1
Cottage loaf 2
Cottage loaf 3
Cottage loaf 4
Ingredients

500 g organic strong white bread flour (option if you want a more authentic loaf: substitute 200 g of the strong white bread flour for a heritage flour such as Lammas Fayre's 'Victorian' flour)
8-10 g salt
15 g  fresh yeast (or 1 x 7g sachet of dried yeast)
25 g grated lard

25 g grated butter
260 g lukewarm (90-100 F/32-38 C water)
4 g sugar

Method

Dissolve the fresh yeast into 50 g of the water. Add 4 g sugar. Let it sit for 10 minutes until it starts to bubble. This shows that the yeast is active. If using dried yeast, add the yeast to the flour in the next stage.

Mix the flours and salt in a large mixing bowl.

Add the water plus the yeasty water to the flour and mix together using your hand (shape it like a claw) or a dough whisk, if you have one. Add the lard and butter. Dissolve the fresh yeast into the water and then add to the flour. Shaping your hand like a claw, mix the water and flour together until a dough starts to form. Turn it out onto a floured surface and knead for 10 minutes.

Shape the dough into a ball by cupping your hands around it at the bottom and turning, and place into a lightly-greased bowl. Cover with a clean, slightly damp cloth and allow to rest for 1 - 1.5 hours (or until doubled in size).

Turn the dough out on to a lightly-floured surface and gently remove the gas which has formed by flattening the dough with your fingers. Cut 1/3 of the flattened dough away.

Take the largest piece of dough: take hold of the edge furthest away and fold it back on to the dough towards you. Turn 45° and repeat. Do this several times until the dough becomes a tight ball.

Taking each piece of dough in turn, create a little more surface tension by cupping your hands around the ball, turning and tucking under at the same time. Cup both hands at the back of the dough and drag the ball towards you. You will see the surface get tighter. Turn the dough over so that the folded-in ‘ends’ are on the bottom and place on a baking tray lined with baking parchment. Repeat with the smaller piece of dough.

Place this round ball directly on top of the larger piece. Dust the dough balls with a little flour then using two fingers held tightly together - also dusted in flour - make a vertical hole straight through both dough balls. Now cover with a light, clean cloth and leave for 30-45 minutes until nicely puffed up, and while you are waiting, preheat the oven to 220°C/425°F/Gas Mark 7.

Remove the cloth from the dough. Using a lame or a very sharp knife, cut the dough at intervals around the sides.

Place the tray with the loaf in the oven, towards the bottom of the oven. Put a tray on the very bottom shelf. Put 2 cups of boiling water in to the bottom tray and close the oven door immediately. This creates steam which will stop the crust from forming too quickly and help the bread to rise.

Bake for 20 minutes and then turn down the heat to 190°C/ 375°/Gas Mark 6. Remove the tray of water from the oven to ensure that you get a good crunchy crust on your loaf and bake for a further 15-20 minutes.

When it is golden brown, take it out and tap the base to check that it is ready. It should sound hollow.

Cool on a wire rack.

Traditional White Tin Loaves

A freshly baked loaf of bread is a treat in any household. This recipe is for a white loaf of bread - much maligned in recent years. But when you make it yourself, you choose exactly what goes into it. No preservatives; no environmentally damaging palm oil; no emulsifiers; no reducing agent; no soya flour, no chlorine dioxide (bleach!) and no hydrogenated or fractionated fats. Just good wholesome ingredients.

white tin loaves
Ingredients

250 ml milk 
60 g unsalted butter
50 ml maple syrup
60 ml lukewarm (90-100°F /  32-38°C) water
15 g fresh yeast
1 egg whisked
500 g Canadian strong white bread flour
1 tsp salt


Method

Heat the milk, butter and maple syrup gently in a saucepan until melted. Allow to cool until it is lukewarm.
Mix the yeast with the water and allow to stand while the milk mixture is cooling.
In a large bowl, mix the milk and maple syrup mixture with the yeasty liquid. Stir in the egg.
Stir in flour and salt until a dough starts to form.
Turn the mixture out onto a lightly-floured surface, and knead for 8-10 minutes until the dough is smooth and elastic. Place the dough in a lightly-oiled bowl and cover with a damp cloth. Leave to rise in a warm place for 1-2 hours, or until the dough has doubled in size.
Turn the dough out. Divide into two pieces. Taking each piece, flatten the dough into a rectangle using the flat of your hand. Fold 1/3 back onto itself. Turn and fold 1/3 of the dough back on to itself. Fold in half and press the edges together using the heel of your hand.  

Place into a 0.5 kg/1lb loaf tin lined with baking paper, positioning the seam at the bottom and tucking the ends underneath. Lightly flour the top of the dough. Repeat with the second loaf.
Cover both tins with a slightly damp cloth and leave to rise for another 60 minutes until well-risen (the dough should reach the top of the tin).

Meanwhile heat the oven to 190°C / 375°F/ Gas 5.
Bake for 20 minutes then take the loaves out of the tins, put back into the oven placing them on their sides. Bake for a further 20-25 minutes until the loaves looks golden brown on all sides and sound hollow when tapped underneath.
Cool on a wire rack for at least 30 minutes.

Flour mill

Sourdough Breads

Classic Light Rye Sourdough

Wholemeal Sourdough Bread

Homemade sourdough is very much in vogue. And home bakers are now producing fabulous loaves which are tasty and healthier than their commercial counterparts. It is believed that many people have become intolerant to gluten due to modern bread-making techniques and certainly the additives in a commercially-produced loaf are not appealing. The advantage of the sourdough baking process is that the long fermentation process makes the bread easier to digest and releases nutrients which our bodies  absorb more easily.

During the mixing stage of the process, glutenin and gliadin in the flour are activated when water is added and start to form gluten strands. The addition of salt adds strength to the gluten structure as well as adding flavour. As the dough ferments, microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria and wild yeast break down the starch in the flours into sugar. The yeast then converts this sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol. The carbon dioxide gets trapped in the gluten net and this causes the bread to rise. The lactic acid bacteria adds the characteristic 'sour' flavour to the finished bread.

This recipe is for a classic light rye sourdough loaf. Rye flour is low in gluten so this bread doesn’t rise in the same way. This loaf uses strong white bread flour mixed with rye so you will get a nice rise.

Ingredients

300 g strong white bread flour (look for a high protein level of between 13-15 grams)
50 g rye flour 

260 g filtered water
75 g rye starter, or rye and wheat starter (at peak) 
8 g salt 

Brown rice flour or fine semolina flour to sprinkle onto the work surface and dough when you need it

Method

Step 1. 'Autolyse'
Mix all the flours with 260 g water. You can do this by hand or using a kitchen mixer (use the dough hook provided). Leave for 1 hour.

Step 2. Add sourdough starter
Using your dough attachment, add the starter to the dough and mix on speed 1 for 5 minutes. Alternatively, if you wish to make this loaf by hand, mix using the Rubaud. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 3. 'Bassinage'
Dissolve the salt in the remaining 10 g water and mix slowly into the dough. Then mix on speed 1 for about 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes.

Step 4. Laminate
Using a scraper dipped in cold water, tip the dough out on to the wet surface of your kitchen counter (or onto a wet marble pastry board). With wet hands, gently stretch the dough outwards from the centre, putting your fingers underneath and slowly pulling outwards. The objective is to create a thin sheet of dough. Then starting at one end, lift a quarter of the sheet and fold it over on to itself. Repeat on the right. Fold the sheet in half vertically. Then fold the top quarter of the sheet over onto itself in a downwards direction, the bottom quarter over onto itself in an upwards direction and finally roll up the dough. This process helps the dough to build strength. Place the dough into a square glass or ceramic dish. Cover it loosely with a damp, clean linen cloth and leave for 30 minutes. 


Step 5. Coil Folds
Every 45-60 minutes perform a 'coil' fold on the dough. This involves lifting the dough at the neck (ie a quarter of the way down) and allowing it to coil underneath itself. Do twice at one end and then turn the dish and perform twice at the other end. Then coil over onto itself. Repeat this 4 times. 
Initially the dough will spread and fill the bowl but with each successive coil fold it will start to hold its shape. When the dough is holding its coiled shape well, then it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 6. Rest
Leave the dough to rest in the dish for 1 hour. It will bulk up during this time and start to look puffy or 'proofy'.

Step 7. Pre-shape
Gently lift the coiled dough out of the dish onto your lightly-floured surface. Using a dough scraper gently push a little flour under the edges of the dough (use brown rice flour here). Shape the dough into a ball by gently pushing your scraper under the dough. Do this from different angles: use a sweeping movement, for example from 4 o'clock up to 12 o'clock and down - pushing against the dough to form a tighter ball. Take care not to push out any of the gas which has been created. Rest the dough for 20 minutes.

Step 8. Shape
Using a floured scraper, gently lift the dough and turn it over and gently jiggle it into a rectangular shape. Fold it like an envelope, starting by creating flap at the from the bottom, then fold the left and right flaps towards the centre and finally the top flap down. 


Step 9. Add tension
Starting at the top, 'stitch' the dough by taking a piece of the dough from the left and a piece of dough from the right and gently stick them together. Create a vertical line of stitches down the dough. This creates tension in the skin of the dough. Gently lift and place into an oval well-seasoned banneton (use rice flour for this). Allow to rest for 10 minutes.

Step 10. Retard
Refrigerate over night for 10-12 hours.


Next Day 
Step 11. Preheat the oven to 240°C / 475°F/ Gas 9. Put a lidded dutch oven or glass (Pyrex) casserole into the oven. 

Step 12. Score
Remove the banneton of dough from the fridge and cover it with a piece of baking parchment. Turn the banneton over and place on your work surface. Gently remove the banneton. Flour the surface of the dough lightly. Using a lame (a very sharp knife especially for cutting dough), cut a line down one side. This will allow for the growth of the dough during baking known as 'oven spring'.

Step 13. Bake
Place your dough into the hot cast iron casserole or glass casserole, keeping it on the baking paper. Cover it with the casserole lid. Bake for 20 minutes at  240°C / 475°F/ Gas . Then remove the lid of the casserole and turn the temperature down to 220°C / 425°F/ Gas 7 and bake for another 15-20 minutes.

Step 14. Remove from oven and cool
Check that the bread is done: it should look golden brown and sound hollow when tapped underneath. Cool on a wire rack for a minimum of 1 hour.

Flour mill

Classic Light Wholemeal Sourdough

Homemade sourdough is very much in vogue. And home bakers are now producing fabulous loaves which are tasty and healthier than their commercial counterparts. It is believed that many people have become intolerant to gluten due to modern bread-making techniques and certainly the additives in a commercially-produced loaf are not appealing. The advantage of the sourdough baking process is that the long fermentation process makes the bread easier to digest and releases nutrients which our bodies  absorb more easily.

During the mixing stage of the process, glutenin and gliadin in the flour are activated when water is added and start to form gluten strands. The addition of salt adds strength to the gluten structure as well as adding flavour. As the dough ferments, microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria and wild yeast break down the starch in the flours into sugar. The yeast then converts this sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol. The carbon dioxide gets trapped in the gluten net and this causes the bread to rise. The lactic acid bacteria adds the characteristic 'sour' flavour to the finished bread.

This recipe is for a classic light wholemeal sourdough loaf.

Ingredients

300 g strong white bread flour (look for a high protein level of between 13-15 grams)
50 g wholemeal flour

270 g filtered water
75 g rye starter, or rye and wheat starter (at peak) 
8 g salt 

Brown rice flour or semolina flour to sprinkle onto the work surface and dough when you need it

Method

Step 1. 'Autolyse'
Mix all the flours with 260 g water. You can do this by hand or using a kitchen mixer (use the dough hook provided). Leave for 1 hour.

Step 2. Add sourdough starter
Using your dough attachment, add the starter to the dough and mix on speed 1 for 5 minutes. Alternatively, if you wish to make this loaf by hand, mix using the Rubaud. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 3. 'Bassinage'
Dissolve the salt in the remaining 10 g water and mix slowly into the dough. Then mix on speed 1 for about 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes.

Step 4. Laminate
Using a scraper dipped in cold water, tip the dough out on to the wet surface of your kitchen counter (or onto a wet marble pastry board). With wet hands, gently stretch the dough outwards from the centre, putting your fingers underneath and slowly pulling outwards. The objective is to create a thin sheet of dough. Then starting at one end, lift a quarter of the sheet and fold it over on to itself. Repeat on the right. Fold the sheet in half vertically. Then fold the top quarter of the sheet over onto itself in a downwards direction, the bottom quarter over onto itself in an upwards direction and finally roll up the dough. This process helps the dough to build strength. Place the dough into a square glass or ceramic dish. Cover it loosely with a damp, clean linen cloth and leave for 30 minutes. 


Step 5. Coil Folds
Every 45-60 minutes perform a 'coil' fold on the dough. This involves lifting the dough at the neck (ie a quarter of the way down) and allowing it to coil underneath itself. Do twice at one end and then turn the dish and perform twice at the other end. Then coil over onto itself. Repeat this 4 times. 
Initially the dough will spread and fill the bowl but with each successive coil fold it will start to hold its shape. When the dough is holding its coiled shape well, then it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 6. Bulk proof
Leave the dough to rest in the dish for 1 hour. It will bulk up during this time and start to look puffy or 'proofy'.

Step 7. Pre-shape
Gently lift the coiled dough out of the dish onto your lightly-floured surface. Using a dough scraper gently push a little flour under the edges of the dough (use rice flour here). Shape the dough into a ball by gently pushing your scraper under the dough. Do this from different angles: use a sweeping movement, for example from 4 o'clock up to 12 o'clock and down - pushing against the dough to form a tighter ball. Take care not to push out any of the gas which has been created. 
Rest the dough for 20 minutes.

Step 8. Shape
Using a floured scraper, gently lift the dough and turn it over and gently jiggle it into a rectangular shape. Fold it like an envelope, starting by creating flap at the from the bottom, then fold the left and right flaps towards the centre and finally the top flap down. 


Step 9. Add tension
Starting at the top, 'stitch' the dough by taking a piece of the dough from the left and a piece of dough from the right and gently stick them together. Create a vertical line of stitches down the dough. This creates tension in the skin of the dough. Gently lift and place into an oval well-seasoned banneton (use rice flour for this). Allow to rest for 10 minutes.

Step 10. Retard
Refrigerate over night for 8-12 hours.


Next Day 
Step 11. Preheat the oven to 240°C / 475°F/ Gas 9. Put a lidded dutch oven or glass (Pyrex) casserole into the oven. Place a tray underneath the level that you will be baking on.

Step 12. Score
Remove the banneton of dough from the fridge and cover it with a piece of baking parchment. Turn the banneton over and place on your work surface. Gently remove the banneton. Flour the surface of the dough lightly. Using a lame (a very sharp knife especially for cutting dough), cut a line down one side. This will allow for the growth of the dough during baking known as 'oven spring'.

Step 13. Bake
Place your dough into the hot cast iron casserole or glass casserole, keeping it on the baking paper. Cover it with the casserole lid. Bake for 20 minutes. Then remove the lid of the casserole, turn the temperature down to 220°C / 425°F/ Gas 7 and bake for another 15-20 minutes.

Step 14. Remove from oven and cool
Check that the bread is done: it should look golden brown and sound hollow when tapped underneath. Cool on a wire rack for a minimum of 1 hour.

Flour mill

Classic Light Spelt Sourdough with Pearled Spelt Grains

Homemade sourdough is very much in vogue. And home bakers are now producing fabulous loaves which are tasty and healthier than their commercial counterparts. It is believed that many people have become intolerant to gluten due to modern bread-making techniques and certainly the additives in a commercially-produced loaf are not appealing. The advantage of the sourdough baking process is that the long fermentation process makes the bread easier to digest and releases nutrients which our bodies  absorb more easily.

During the mixing stage of the process, glutenin and gliadin in the flour are activated when water is added and start to form gluten strands. The addition of salt adds strength to the gluten structure as well as adding flavour. As the dough ferments, microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria and wild yeast break down the starch in the flours into sugar. The yeast then converts this sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol. The carbon dioxide gets trapped in the gluten net and this causes the bread to rise. The lactic acid bacteria adds the characteristic 'sour' flavour to the finished bread.

This recipe is for a classic light spelt sourdough loaf with added pearled spelt grains.

Ingredients

250 g strong white bread flour (look for a high protein level of between 13-15 grams)
100 g spelt flour

250 g filtered water (plus 10 g water added with salt)
75 g rye starter, or rye and wheat starter (at peak) 
8 g salt 
40 g pearled spelt (pre-soaked for 2-3 hours)

Brown rice flour or semolina flour to sprinkle onto the work surface and dough when you need it

Method

Step 1. Wash and soak the pearled spelt in freshly boiled water. Leave until soft to the bite (around 2-3 hours) and then drain and leave to dry.

Step 2. 'Autolyse'
Mix all the flours with 250 g water. You can do this by hand or using the dough hook of a kitchen mixer mixer (I do everything by hand). Leave for 1 hour.

Step 3. Add sourdough starter
Add the starter to the dough and mix by hand using the Rubaud method (a scooping action underneath the dough as you mix), or a kitchen mixer on speed 1 or 2 for 4 minutes or so. Leave to rest for 45 minutes. 

Step 4. 'Bassinage'
Dissolve the salt in the reserved 10 g water and mix slowly into the dough by hand using the 'Rubaud' method (or in your kitchen mixer on speed 1 or 2) for about 3-4 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes.

Step 5. Laminate
Spray your work surface with a mister. Using a scraper dipped in cold water, tip the dough out on to the counter. Spray your hands with a mister and gently stretch the dough outwards from the centre, putting your fingers underneath the dough and slowly pulling outwards. The objective is to create a thin sheet of dough without tearing it. Take your drained pearled spelt grains and scatter them evenly over the sheet of dough. Then starting at one end, lift a quarter of the sheet and fold it over on to itself. Repeat on the right. Fold the sheet in half vertically. Then fold the top quarter of the sheet over onto itself in a downwards direction, the bottom quarter over onto itself in an upwards direction and finally roll up the dough. This process helps the dough to build strength. Place the dough into a square glass or ceramic dish. Cover it loosely with a damp, clean linen cloth and leave for 45-60 minutes. 


Step 6. Coil Folds
Every 45-60 minutes perform a 'coil' fold on the dough. This involves lifting the dough at the neck (ie a quarter of the way down) and allowing it to coil underneath itself. Do twice at one end and then turn the dish and perform twice at the other end. Then coil over onto itself. Repeat this process 4 times. 
Initially the dough will spread and fill the bowl but with each successive coil fold it will start to hold its shape. When the dough is holding its coiled shape well, then it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 7. Rest
Following the last fold, leave the dough to rest in the dish for 1 hour. It will bulk up during this time and start to look puffy or 'proofy'.

Step 8. Pre-shape
Gently lift the coiled dough out of the dish onto your lightly-floured surface. Using a dough scraper gently push a little flour under the edges of the dough (use rice flour here). Shape the dough into a ball by gently pushing your scraper under the dough. Do this from different angles: use a sweeping movement, for example from 4 o'clock up to 12 o'clock and down - pushing against the dough to form a tighter ball and shaping it with your spare hand. Take care not to push out any of the gas which has been created. Rest the dough for 20 minutes.

Step 9. Shape
Flour your surface lightly. Using a floured scraper, gently lift the dough and turn it over and gently jiggle it into a rectangular shape. Fold it like an envelope, starting by creating flap at the from the bottom, then fold the left and right flaps towards the centre and finally the top flap down. 


Step 10. Add tension
Starting at the top, 'stitch' the dough by taking a piece of the dough from the left and a piece of dough from the right and gently stick them together. Create a vertical line of stitches down the dough. This creates tension in the skin of the dough. Gently lift and place into an oval well-seasoned banneton (use rice flour for this). You can stitch again to add a little more tension to the skin of the dough and help to create a better shape. Allow to rest for 10 minutes.

Step 11. Retard
Refrigerate over night for around 12 hours.


Next Day 
Step 12. Preheat the oven to 240°C / 475°F/ Gas 9. Put a lidded dutch oven or glass (Pyrex) casserole into the oven and let heat for an hour. 

Step 13. Score
Remove the banneton of dough from the fridge and cover it with a piece of baking parchment. Turn the banneton over and place on your work surface. Gently remove the banneton. Flour the surface of the dough lightly. Using a lame (a very sharp knife especially for cutting dough), cut a line down one side. This will allow for the growth of the dough during baking known as 'oven spring'.

Step 14. Bake
Place your dough into the hot cast iron casserole or glass casserole, keeping it on the baking paper. Cover it with the casserole lid. Bake for 20 minutes. Then remove the lid of the casserole, turn the temperature down to 220°C / 425°F/ Gas 7 and bake for another 15-20 minutes.

Step 15. Remove from oven and cool
Check that the bread is done: it should look golden brown and sound hollow when tapped underneath. Cool on a wire rack for a minimum of 1 hour.

Flour mill

Pumpkin Sourdough 

You may think that Pumpkin bread is for autumn only. But by using tinned puree of pumpkin you can make this any time.

The result is a light, fluffy sourdough which is perfect with salads or soups whether it be winter root veg or a light cream of celery soup.

Ingredients

300 g strong white bread flour (look for a high protein level of between 13-15 grams)
50 g wholemeal flour
200 g filtered water + 10 g water for salt
75 g sourdough starter (at peak) 

8 g salt
80 g tinned puree of pumpkin


Fine semolina flour to sprinkle onto the work surface and dough when you need it

Method

Because  pumpkin puree is used, mixing of the dough is easier using a KitchenAid (or similar).

Step 1.  'Autolyse'
Mix the flours with 200 g water in a kitchen mixer. Leave for 1 hour. The dough will be quite dry but try to incorporate all the flour

Step 2. Add sourdough starter
Add the ripe starter to the dough and mix on speed 1 for 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 3. Add pumpkin
Add the pumpkin and mix in. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 4. 'Bassinage'

Dissolve the salt in 10 g water and mix slowly into the dough. Mix on speed 1 for about 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes.

Step 5. Laminate
Using a scraper dipped in cold water, tip the dough out on to the surface of your kitchen counter (spray it lightly with a mister beforehand). With wet hands, gently stretch the dough outwards from the centre, putting your fingers underneath and slowly pulling outwards. The objective is to create a thin sheet of dough. Then starting at one end, lift a quarter of the sheet and fold it over on to itself. Repeat on the right. Fold the sheet in half vertically. Then fold the top quarter of the sheet over onto itself in a downwards direction, the bottom quarter over onto itself in an upwards direction and finally roll up the dough. This process helps the dough to build strength. Place the dough into a square glass or ceramic dish. Cover it loosely with a damp, clean linen cloth and leave for 30 minutes.

Step 6. Coil Folds
Every 45 minutes perform a 'coil' fold on the dough. This involves lifting the dough at the neck (ie a quarter of the way down) and allowing it to coil underneath itself. Do twice at one end and then turn the dish and perform twice at the other end. Then coil over onto itself. Repeat this 3-4 times. 
Initially the dough will spread and fill the bowl but with each successive coil fold it will start to hold its shape. When the dough is holding its coiled shape well, then it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 7. Rest
Leave the dough to rest in the dish for 1 hour. It will bulk up during this time and start to look puffy or 'proofy'. Look for a 30% increase in the dough size.

Step 8. Pre-shape
Gently lift the coiled dough out of the dish onto your lightly-floured surface. Using a dough scraper gently push a little flour under the edges of the dough (use rice flour here). Shape the dough into a ball by gently pushing your scraper under the dough. Do this from different angles: use a sweeping movement, for example from 4 o'clock up to 12 o'clock and down - pushing against the dough to form a tighter ball. Take care not to push out any of the gas which has been created. Rest the dough for 20 minutes.

Step 9. Shape
Using a floured scraper, gently lift the dough and turn it over and gently jiggle it into a rectangular shape. Pick one edge dough and fold it in to the centre. Take the outer 'corner' which has been created and fold it in to the centre. Work your way around the dough repeating this action. Turn over and shape into a ball.

Step 10. Add tension
Drag the whole ball towards you to create some surface tension. Allow to rest for 10 minutes.

Step 11. Retard
Cut 4 lengths of string which are long enough to wrap around the dough. Lay them out at regular intervals on your floured surface. Gently place the dough onto the strings taking care not to deflate it.  Gently tie the string over the dough. Place into a round banneton lined with a think linen. Refrigerate over night for 8-12 hours.

Next Day 
Step 12. Preheat the oven to 240°C / 475°F/ Gas 9. Put a lidded dutch oven or glass (Pyrex) casserole into the oven. 

Step 13. Score
Turn the dough out onto a round piece of baking paper. Using a lame (a very sharp knife especially for cutting dough), cut a line down each segment of pumpkin dough. This will allow for the growth of the dough during baking known as 'oven spring'.

Step 14. Bake
Place your dough into the hot cast iron casserole or glass casserole, keeping it on the baking paper. Use a peel or similar. Cover it with the casserole lid. Bake for 20 minutes. Then remove the lid of the casserole, turn the temperature down to 220°C / 425°F/ Gas 7 and bake for another 15 minutes.

Step 15. Remove from oven and cool
Check that the bread is done: it should look golden brown and sound hollow when tapped underneath. Cool on a wire rack for a minimum of 1 hour.

Flour mill

50:50 Rye Sourdough

Rye Sourdough Bread

Rye bread has always been associated with the colder Nordic countries, the high valleys of the Alps and of course Germany. It is very popular today for its health properties. It is high in lysine, a good source of zinc, copper, manganese and selenium, and a very good source of dietary fibre.

Rye flour is low in gluten so this bread doesn’t rise in the same way as a loaf made with a strong wheat flour. This recipe therefore uses a high proportion of rye mixed with some strong white bread flour and is boosted by a hybrid mix of a little fresh yeast and sourdough starter.

The bread is delicious with salad, cold sliced beef and fish, especially smoked salmon and trout

Ingredients:

250 g light rye flour
250 g strong white bread flour
5 g fresh baker’s yeast
10 g salt
150 g sourdough starter (see new baker’s notes)
350 g lukewarm water

Method:

Dissolve the yeast in some of the water.
Mix all the ingredients in an electric mixer (Kitchenaid or similar) for 10-15 minutes using the dough hook.
Put the sticky dough in a square or rectangular glass bowl. Leave at room temperature for 4 hours. 
Turn out onto a lightly-floured surface. Fold the outer corners into the middle of the dough, turning the dough as you go. Turn the dough over and shape into a ball with your hands.
 
Flour the top lightly and put into a well-floured banneton (seam facing upwards). Leave to proof for 2-3 hours (until the dough has risen to the top of the banneton). Alternatively, you can put the covered banneton into the fridge overnight to proof more slowly.

Next day
Preheat the oven to 230°C / 425°F/ Gas 7. Put a dutch oven or similar into the oven to heat. Place a second tray underneath it (for water).

Turn the dough out from the banneton directly onto a round of baking paper. Dust the top of the dough lightly with flour. There's no need to score this loaf.

Put the dough straight into the Dutch oven and put the lid on top. 

Put 1-2 cups of cold water into the bottom tray. Close the oven immediately to contain the steam.
Bake for 20 minutes at 230°C. Bake for a further 15-20 minutes at 200°C degrees, until the loaf sounds hollow when tapped underneath.

Cool on a wire rack, slice and enjoy!

Pumpkin Sourdough 

You may think that Pumpkin bread is for autumn only. But by using tinned puree of pumpkin you can make this any time.

The result is a light, fluffy sourdough which is perfect with salads or soups whether it be winter root veg or a light cream of celery soup.

Ingredients

300 g strong white bread flour (look for a high protein level of between 13-15 grams)
50 g wholemeal flour
200 g filtered water + 10 g water for salt
75 g sourdough starter (at peak) 

8 g salt
80 g tinned puree of pumpkin


Fine semolina flour to sprinkle onto the work surface and dough when you need it

Method

Because  pumpkin puree is used, mixing of the dough is easier using a KitchenAid (or similar).

Step 1.  'Autolyse'
Mix the flours with 200 g water in a kitchen mixer. Leave for 1 hour. The dough will be quite dry but try to incorporate all the flour

Step 2. Add sourdough starter
Add the ripe starter to the dough and mix on speed 1 for 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 3. Add pumpkin
Add the pumpkin and mix in. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 4. 'Bassinage'

Dissolve the salt in 10 g water and mix slowly into the dough. Mix on speed 1 for about 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes.

Step 5. Laminate
Using a scraper dipped in cold water, tip the dough out on to the surface of your kitchen counter (spray it lightly with a mister beforehand). With wet hands, gently stretch the dough outwards from the centre, putting your fingers underneath and slowly pulling outwards. The objective is to create a thin sheet of dough. Then starting at one end, lift a quarter of the sheet and fold it over on to itself. Repeat on the right. Fold the sheet in half vertically. Then fold the top quarter of the sheet over onto itself in a downwards direction, the bottom quarter over onto itself in an upwards direction and finally roll up the dough. This process helps the dough to build strength. Place the dough into a square glass or ceramic dish. Cover it loosely with a damp, clean linen cloth and leave for 30 minutes.

Step 6. Coil Folds
Every 45 minutes perform a 'coil' fold on the dough. This involves lifting the dough at the neck (ie a quarter of the way down) and allowing it to coil underneath itself. Do twice at one end and then turn the dish and perform twice at the other end. Then coil over onto itself. Repeat this 3-4 times. 
Initially the dough will spread and fill the bowl but with each successive coil fold it will start to hold its shape. When the dough is holding its coiled shape well, then it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 7. Rest
Leave the dough to rest in the dish for 1 hour. It will bulk up during this time and start to look puffy or 'proofy'. Look for a 30% increase in the dough size.

Step 8. Pre-shape
Gently lift the coiled dough out of the dish onto your lightly-floured surface. Using a dough scraper gently push a little flour under the edges of the dough (use rice flour here). Shape the dough into a ball by gently pushing your scraper under the dough. Do this from different angles: use a sweeping movement, for example from 4 o'clock up to 12 o'clock and down - pushing against the dough to form a tighter ball. Take care not to push out any of the gas which has been created. Rest the dough for 20 minutes.

Step 9. Shape
Using a floured scraper, gently lift the dough and turn it over and gently jiggle it into a rectangular shape. Pick one edge dough and fold it in to the centre. Take the outer 'corner' which has been created and fold it in to the centre. Work your way around the dough repeating this action. Turn over and shape into a ball.

Step 10. Add tension
Drag the whole ball towards you to create some surface tension. Allow to rest for 10 minutes.

Step 11. Retard
Cut 4 lengths of string which are long enough to wrap around the dough. Lay them out at regular intervals on your floured surface. Gently place the dough onto the strings taking care not to deflate it.  Gently tie the string over the dough. Place into a round banneton lined with a think linen. Refrigerate over night for 8-12 hours.

Next Day 
Step 12. Preheat the oven to 240°C / 475°F/ Gas 9. Put a lidded dutch oven or glass (Pyrex) casserole into the oven. 

Step 13. Score
Turn the dough out onto a round piece of baking paper. Using a lame (a very sharp knife especially for cutting dough), cut a line down each segment of pumpkin dough. This will allow for the growth of the dough during baking known as 'oven spring'.

Step 14. Bake
Place your dough into the hot cast iron casserole or glass casserole, keeping it on the baking paper. Use a peel or similar. Cover it with the casserole lid. Bake for 20 minutes. Then remove the lid of the casserole, turn the temperature down to 220°C / 425°F/ Gas 7 and bake for another 15 minutes.

Step 15. Remove from oven and cool
Check that the bread is done: it should look golden brown and sound hollow when tapped underneath. Cool on a wire rack for a minimum of 1 hour.

Flour mill

50:50 Rye Sourdough

Rye Sourdough Bread

Rye bread has always been associated with the colder Nordic countries, the high valleys of the Alps and of course Germany. It is very popular today for its health properties. It is high in lysine, a good source of zinc, copper, manganese and selenium, and a very good source of dietary fibre.

Rye flour is low in gluten so this bread doesn’t rise in the same way as a loaf made with a strong wheat flour. This recipe therefore uses a high proportion of rye mixed with some strong white bread flour and is boosted by a hybrid mix of a little fresh yeast and sourdough starter.

The bread is delicious with salad, cold sliced beef and fish, especially smoked salmon and trout

Ingredients:

250 g light rye flour
250 g strong white bread flour
5 g fresh baker’s yeast
10 g salt
150 g sourdough starter (see new baker’s notes)
350 g lukewarm water

Method:

Dissolve the yeast in some of the water.
Mix all the ingredients in an electric mixer (Kitchenaid or similar) for 10-15 minutes using the dough hook.
Put the sticky dough in a square or rectangular glass bowl. Leave at room temperature for 4 hours. 
Turn out onto a lightly-floured surface. Fold the outer corners into the middle of the dough, turning the dough as you go. Turn the dough over and shape into a ball with your hands.
 
Flour the top lightly and put into a well-floured banneton (seam facing upwards). Leave to proof for 2-3 hours (until the dough has risen to the top of the banneton). Alternatively, you can put the covered banneton into the fridge overnight to proof more slowly.

Next day
Preheat the oven to 230°C / 425°F/ Gas 7. Put a dutch oven or similar into the oven to heat. Place a second tray underneath it (for water).

Turn the dough out from the banneton directly onto a round of baking paper. Dust the top of the dough lightly with flour. There's no need to score this loaf.

Put the dough straight into the Dutch oven and put the lid on top. 

Put 1-2 cups of cold water into the bottom tray. Close the oven immediately to contain the steam.
Bake for 20 minutes at 230°C. Bake for a further 15-20 minutes at 200°C degrees, until the loaf sounds hollow when tapped underneath.

Cool on a wire rack, slice and enjoy!

Pumpkin Sourdough 

You may think that Pumpkin bread is for autumn only. But by using tinned puree of pumpkin you can make this any time.

The result is a light, fluffy sourdough which is perfect with salads or soups whether it be winter root veg or a light cream of celery soup.

Ingredients

300 g strong white bread flour (look for a high protein level of between 13-15 grams)
50 g wholemeal flour
200 g filtered water + 10 g water for salt
75 g sourdough starter (at peak) 

8 g salt
80 g tinned puree of pumpkin


Fine semolina flour to sprinkle onto the work surface and dough when you need it

Method

Because  pumpkin puree is used, mixing of the dough is easier using a KitchenAid (or similar).

Step 1.  'Autolyse'
Mix the flours with 200 g water in a kitchen mixer. Leave for 1 hour. The dough will be quite dry but try to incorporate all the flour

Step 2. Add sourdough starter
Add the ripe starter to the dough and mix on speed 1 for 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 3. Add pumpkin
Add the pumpkin and mix in. Leave to rest for 30 minutes. 

Step 4. 'Bassinage'

Dissolve the salt in 10 g water and mix slowly into the dough. Mix on speed 1 for about 5 minutes. Leave to rest for 30 minutes.

Step 5. Laminate
Using a scraper dipped in cold water, tip the dough out on to the surface of your kitchen counter (spray it lightly with a mister beforehand). With wet hands, gently stretch the dough outwards from the centre, putting your fingers underneath and slowly pulling outwards. The objective is to create a thin sheet of dough. Then starting at one end, lift a quarter of the sheet and fold it over on to itself. Repeat on the right. Fold the sheet in half vertically. Then fold the top quarter of the sheet over onto itself in a downwards direction, the bottom quarter over onto itself in an upwards direction and finally roll up the dough. This process helps the dough to build strength. Place the dough into a square glass or ceramic dish. Cover it loosely with a damp, clean linen cloth and leave for 30 minutes.

Step 6. Coil Folds
Every 45 minutes perform a 'coil' fold on the dough. This involves lifting the dough at the neck (ie a quarter of the way down) and allowing it to coil underneath itself. Do twice at one end and then turn the dish and perform twice at the other end. Then coil over onto itself. Repeat this 3-4 times. 
Initially the dough will spread and fill the bowl but with each successive coil fold it will start to hold its shape. When the dough is holding its coiled shape well, then it's time to move on to the next step.

Step 7. Rest
Leave the dough to rest in the dish for 1 hour. It will bulk up during this time and start to look puffy or 'proofy'. Look for a 30% increase in the dough size.

Step 8. Pre-shape
Gently lift the coiled dough out of the dish onto your lightly-floured surface. Using a dough scraper gently push a little flour under the edges of the dough (use rice flour here). Shape the dough into a ball by gently pushing your scraper under the dough. Do this from different angles: use a sweeping movement, for example from 4 o'clock up to 12 o'clock and down - pushing against the dough to form a tighter ball. Take care not to push out any of the gas which has been created. Rest the dough for 20 minutes.

Step 9. Shape
Using a floured scraper, gently lift the dough and turn it over and gently jiggle it into a rectangular shape. Pick one edge dough and fold it in to the centre. Take the outer 'corner' which has been created and fold it in to the centre. Work your way around the dough repeating this action. Turn over and shape into a ball.

Step 10. Add tension
Drag the whole ball towards you to create some surface tension. Allow to rest for 10 minutes.

Step 11. Retard
Cut 4 lengths of string which are long enough to wrap around the dough. Lay them out at regular intervals on your floured surface. Gently place the dough onto the strings taking care not to deflate it.  Gently tie the string over the dough. Place into a round banneton lined with a think linen. Refrigerate over night for 8-12 hours.

Next Day 
Step 12. Preheat the oven to 240°C / 475°F/ Gas 9. Put a lidded dutch oven or glass (Pyrex) casserole into the oven. 

Step 13. Score
Turn the dough out onto a round piece of baking paper. Using a lame (a very sharp knife especially for cutting dough), cut a line down each segment of pumpkin dough. This will allow for the growth of the dough during baking known as 'oven spring'.

Step 14. Bake
Place your dough into the hot cast iron casserole or glass casserole, keeping it on the baking paper. Use a peel or similar. Cover it with the casserole lid. Bake for 20 minutes. Then remove the lid of the casserole, turn the temperature down to 220°C / 425°F/ Gas 7 and bake for another 15 minutes.

Step 15. Remove from oven and cool
Check that the bread is done: it should look golden brown and sound hollow when tapped underneath. Cool on a wire rack for a minimum of 1 hour.

Flour mill

50:50 Rye Sourdough

Rye Sourdough Bread

Rye bread has always been associated with the colder Nordic countries, the high valleys of the Alps and of course Germany. It is very popular today for its health properties. It is high in lysine, a good source of zinc, copper, manganese and selenium, and a very good source of dietary fibre.

Rye flour is low in gluten so this bread doesn’t rise in the same way as a loaf made with a strong wheat flour. This recipe therefore uses a high proportion of rye mixed with some strong white bread flour and is boosted by a hybrid mix of a little fresh yeast and sourdough starter.

The bread is delicious with salad, cold sliced beef and fish, especially smoked salmon and trout

Ingredients:

250 g light rye flour
250 g strong white bread flour
5 g fresh baker’s yeast
10 g salt
150 g sourdough starter (see new baker’s notes)
350 g lukewarm water

Method:

Dissolve the yeast in some of the water.
Mix all the ingredients in an electric mixer (Kitchenaid or similar) for 10-15 minutes using the dough hook.
Put the sticky dough in a square or rectangular glass bowl. Leave at room temperature for 4 hours. 
Turn out onto a lightly-floured surface. Fold the outer corners into the middle of the dough, turning the dough as you go. Turn the dough over and shape into a ball with your hands.
 
Flour the top lightly and put into a well-floured banneton (seam facing upwards). Leave to proof for 2-3 hours (until the dough has risen to the top of the banneton). Alternatively, you can put the covered banneton into the fridge overnight to proof more slowly.

Next day
Preheat the oven to 230°C / 425°F/ Gas 7. Put a dutch oven or similar into the oven to heat. Place a second tray underneath it (for water).

Turn the dough out from the banneton directly onto a round of baking paper. Dust the top of the dough lightly with flour. There's no need to score this loaf.

Put the dough straight into the Dutch oven and put the lid on top. 

Put 1-2 cups of cold water into the bottom tray. Close the oven immediately to contain the steam.
Bake for 20 minutes at 230°C. Bake for a further 15-20 minutes at 200°C degrees, until the loaf sounds hollow when tapped underneath.

Cool on a wire rack, slice and enjoy!

The 'Marching' Loaf - Spelt Bread

Spelt is an ancient grain which has been grown in Somerset, England since the start of the Iron Age. It is a cross between Emmer wheat and goat grass. It has a unique gluten structure which makes it easier to digest than modern wheat. It is high in protein, rich in fibre and has more minerals and vitamins too. It is a good source of slow release energy, so much so that the Roman Army called it their ‘marching grain’.

4. Consistent crumb

 

Ingredients

500g spelt flour
300 g filtered water 
100 g active rye starter (at peak) 
8 g salt


Method

The evening before:
Mix the sourdough starter with the water.
Put the flour into a mixing bowl and stir in the liquid.
Add the salt.
Cover and leave out overnight or for about 8 hours (do not put in the fridge).

Next morning:
Tip out the dough onto a lightly-floured surface.
Fold the corners of the dough in to the centre until you have created a ball shape which has some surface tension.
Put into a well-floured banneton and leave to rise for 1-2 hours until nearly doubled in size.
Heat the oven to 230°F. Get a cast iron casserole and put greaseproof paper on the upturned lid. Turn out the dough carefully on to it and cover with the casserole bowl.
Put a cup of water in the tray at the bottom of the over to create steam. Place the casserole in the oven for 20 minutes. Remove the casserole bowl and cook for a further 20 minutes. Remove from the oven and turn the loaf over and tap the bottom. If cooked it will sound hollow.
Leave to cool completely on a wire rack and then wrap in a thick linen cloth and store in a bread bin.